Bharat is a sovereign democratic republic. The persons who framed our constitution had the concept of federal system before their eyes. The Supreme head of the union is President. There is Vice-President for his assistance. There are three main parts of the administrative set up - Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.
In democratic system entire power rests with the people. The people elect legislature (M.L.A.s) for the Legislative Assemblies of the States and Members of Parliament (MPs) for the Loksabha of the union (centre).To conduct this process the provision of Election Commission has been made. Both the houses of the Parliament are respectively conducted by the speaker of the Loksabha (House of People) and the chairman of the Rajyasabha (Council of State) (Bharat Vice-President).
To assist them there are respectively Deputy Chair-man and Deputy Speaker. (2) The Administrative head of the nation is the President. Entire administrative work is done in his name. All citizens of (India) Bharat, whose age is above18, elect the members of Parliament by casting their votes.
The President invites the leader of the majority party to form the Government. Sometime one party does not get the majority, in such condition many parties come together to form a government. In consultation with Prime Minister, the President forms the cabinet. In the cabinet there are two (types) grades of the ministers - (i) Cabinet Ministers (ii) Minister of State.
Full freedom and impartiality has been guaranteed to the Judiciary by the constitution. There is the provision of Supreme Court in union and High Courts in the state. The President appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. Central Government (i.e. Union Government) works for the welfare of the nation and people.
The structure of the government is same on both the levels - i.e. Central and State levels. In some states there are two houses of the Legislature (of a state) i.e. legislative assembly and legislative council, and in some states the legislative assembly alone does the entire work. Allotment of the government work for the (smooth) function of the government machinery the entire work is allotted.
On the basis of this allotment various ministries are formed. Ministry is divided into departments as per requirement. Generally the responsibility of the each ministry is on the cabinet ranking minister. There may be more than one minister in one ministry. The responsibility of the implementation of the ministry's policy is on the concerned minister.
The administrative responsibility of the ministry or department lies with the secretary. He (only) is the administrative head of the ministry or department. He is the advisor of the minister on policy-matters. To dispose of the works of the ministry smoothly it is distributed in wings, divisions, branches, sections etc.
The Joint Secretary is the incharge of the wing. The Director or Deputy Secretary looks after the division. Under-secretary is the incharge of the branch whereas section officer is in charge of the section. To conduct the functions of the section in proper way there are assistants, upper division clerks (UDCs), lower division clerks (LDCs) diarist, typist and class IV employees.
Sometimes the unit is established in the ministry. They are known as cells. There are other offices under the ministries to implement the government policies. These offices are known as the attached and subordinate offices.
The attached offices are the resources of the technical information (know how) and they give the advice to the ministry on technical aspects. The responsibility of implementing the policies of the ministry lies with the subordinate offices. In some cases subordinate offices work under attached offices, in other cases they work directly under ministry. The departmental head of the attached and subordinate office is director.
Many-a-time some autonomous bodies are established inside the ministries. Administratively they work under the ministry. The ministry gives them the grant to complete the work allotted to them.
In addition to these there are constitutional bodies, undertakes or demi-official organizations and institutions. The administrative structure of these institutions is different than that of the ministry. Their highest officers are Director-General, General Manager, and Commissioner etc.
In Official terms the letters received in the ministry or the office is known as Receipt. It's travelling starts from the Central Registry. The receipt clerk receives all the letters (Telegrams) etc. coming in the Central Registry. The receipt-clerk puts the date-stamp on the receipts and sorts them out section-wise.
The receipts which are marked as 'Urgent', 'Immediate', 'Secret', 'Confidential' are immediately sent to the concerned sections or the concerned officers. There is a separate register for such receipts. The receipts received in the ministry or the office is known as 'Dak' also. The receipt-clerk makes the entry of all the communications in the concerned registers.
After this the process of distribution of the dak starts. The separate invoice is prepared for the dak of each section and the receipts are sent to the diarist of the concerned section. The diarist receives the receipts as per the invoice and sends them to the section-officer or direct to the branch-officer. The section-officer submits these receipts to the higher officer or the next officer for his perusal, in the dak stage only, to get the necessary instructions, directives, orders etc. for their disposal (i.e. to be for the guidance as to how the action is to be taken on them).
As per the need the officer writes the necessary notes in the margin (of the receipt) in connection with the disposal of the receipts or puts his initials on them. The section officer, after writing the names of the dealing assistants/clerks on the routine receipts, returns them to the diarist who enters them in the section diary and then hands them over to the concerned dealing assistants. Each assistant enters these receipts in his diary and starts the necessary action for their disposal. At the end of each week a weekly statement is prepared of the receipts on which action could not be taken and is sent to the branch officer for his perusal and orders.
Concerned assistant takes immediate action on the receipts marked as 'Immediate' or 'Priority’. If the receipt is connected with some old matter then that receipt is submitted on bringing it on to concerned file and if the receipt is about some new matter then the new file is opened. If the main file concerning the subject of the #new# receipt, is already put in some separate connection, then the part-file is opened. When the main file returns, all the documents #papers# are filed with the main file.
The file has two parts - noting (portion) and correspondence (portion).In the noting-portion there are noting in connection with the disposal of the paper under consideration and in correspondence portion, the receipts and the copies of the correspondence regarding them are kept. The receipts which are thus kept are given the 'Serial Number' and the office copies the letter sent by the office are given the 'Serial Number #Dispatch#'. This process is known as docketing.
After the docketing the assistant needs to refer the concerned records, files, rules, regulations etc. related to the matter. Many times recorded files or standard guard files are also enclosed. Such step is taken in the important matters or matters regarding policy. This process is known as giving the reference.
For the convenience of the officers relevant reference are flagged. After collecting all the relevant material the assistant writes the noting on the file. It (noting) consists of the following things - The mention of the proposal given in the receipt, the summary of the previous action, After writing the noting the assistant puts up the file to the section officer.
Section officer sends the file to the higher officer/branch officer/under secretary along with noting or just his initials. When the file is sent out by the section, then the movement is entered in the 'File Movement Register'. Many a time the higher officer writes short notes on the file, as 'pleas speak', 'please discuss' and returns the file calling for the detail explanation or orders to submit the self-contained, self-explanatory note or the higher officers. The higher officers like the Secretary, Joint secretary, Deputy secretary, Under Secretary of the ministry pass the necessary orders utilizing the powers vested in them.
Where it is required the concurrence of some other Ministry, Finance Ministry or Law Ministry is obtained. For this an inter-departmental-note is sent separately. After taking the necessary decision the reply is sent to the individual, institution or the office etc. who has sent the receipt (the letter).In the cases where it is not possible to send the reply immediately, an interim-reply is sent. In this way the travelling of the receipt is considered to be ended when after taking appropriate action the appropriate answer is sent to the sender of the receipt.
Oh, Hello Anil, Many congratulations for getting the son (for the birth of a son), so how do you do ? your wife and your son (both of them) are alright ?Oh, yes, By the grace of God both are now alright. In the beginning the baby was weak so there was worry. I was also on 15 days' paternity leave.
The child was not healthy, so I had to extend the leave. After that (i.e. the paternity leave) I availed of 30 days earned leave also. Since when one can avail the paternity leave ?15 days of paternity leave can be availed within the period of six months from child's birth.
Your wife also must be finding it very difficult to get the leave. She is also in government service. You are right. First she took maternity leave for four and half months. After that she is on half pay leave.
Whether one has to produce Doctor's certificate for half-pay-leave? No, when half-earned leave is taken immediately after the maternity leave, then producing the Medical-certificate is not a must. It is heard that now-a-days government servants have to produce Central Government Health Scheme's Doctor's Certificate for commuted leave. In fact, for the gazetted officers the certificate of the Medical Officer of Central Govt. Health Scheme is acceptable but as for the non-gazetted servants, they can produce private Doctor's certificate. And what else (tell something more) How your study for M. Phil. is going.
To study while doing the job is being difficult. The problem is only this that I am not getting the study-leave. You are doing M. Phil in Hindi and you are working as a Hindi Pradhyapak. Your study is directly related with your work.
Then what is the difficulty (problem)At present there is dearth of Pradhyapak. It is heard that recruitment is being done soon. I am thinking that first I will take earned leave and then afterwards I will take commuted leave.
If I don't get the study leave, I can take Extra-ordinary leave, which can be availed only when all other types of leave are finished. See Ajeet, now-a-days, as per the rule if you have completed five years regular continuous govt. service, you can get maximum 24 months study leave. You can take other types of leave along with this (study leave), but your total leave-period should not exceed 28 months. For doing Ph. D. one can get maximum 36 months of study leave.
This does not include extra-ordinary leave. During the study-leave is there any provision for leave-pay? Of course there is. If you are studying in India, then you can get the pay, which were drawing just before proceeding on leave, plus dearness allowance and house-rent-allowance.
If you are getting any scholarship or financial help, or any payment for the part-time-work then it will be adjusted with your leave-pay, on condition that this leave-pay will not be less than what you will get on half-pay leave. As for the House rent allowance and city compensatory allowance you can get it as you were drawing at your last work-place (posting), for 180 days. After 180 days you have to produce the prescribed certificate for getting these allowances. For detail information you can see Swamy's handbook.
Thanks Anil, oh, today you have given me quite useful information. I am thinking that I will speak with Deputy Director and take some earned leave. In between I will take the charge (of my post).I will apply for study leave after the new Pradhyapaks are posted.
If the God grants I will complete my M. phil within 2 years' period. Now, you problem is solved to some limit. Let us go to the canteen and have a cup of tea. Why? Has not your peon come to-day?
Previously he used to prepare tea in the section itself. No, Mahato is down with chicken-pox so he is on quarantine leave. Then let us go to the canteen, after all I have to take sweets from you. Why not? Sure, Sure!
Government service is governed by the rules and regulations and it is necessary for the govt. servants to abide by the service-conditions and service rules. Every office specifies the definite duty hours. Every (servant) official or the officer is expected to follow them strictly. A government servant should reach the office on exact time.
After the ten minutes from the specified time the section officer sends the section's attendance register to the branch officer. The servant who reaches the office after ten minutes from the prescribed time gets X (against his name# in the attendance register. When there are three crosses one day leave is debited. If any #servant# official is absent #in the office) without any prior intimation or does not adhere to the office-timings then this is taken as the case of breach of the office-discipline.
Likewise it is expected of every official (servant) that he should do his office-work on time. Knowingly done unnecessary delay will be taken as indiscipline. Likewise the following things are treated as indiscipline - Not to obey the immediate officer, not to comply with the Conduct Rules, not to dispose of the given official work in time, to behave indecently with the colleagues, insubordination of the officers. For these the disciplinary action is taken against the servant/official.
A procedure is prescribed for this. First of all the immediate officer tries to explain the official orally about his indisciplinary behaviour. When there is no change in his indisciplinary behaviour then the disciplinary action against him is started. At the first office memorandum is issued to the concerned servant/official to explain his indisciplinary behaviour, in which he is asked to explain within a specific time-limit.
After the explanation is received the office decides whether (the explanation) it is satisfactory or not. If the complaint against the official is received for the first time then he is warned stating that his explanation was not found satisfactory and in future he should not behave in this undisciplined way otherwise the strict action will be taken against him. If any official does not follow the official discipline then he can be transferred from the present section to some other section or from one place to another place. Transfer is not taken as a punishment.
Government provides some facilities also to its officials as Medical facility, home town or all India Leave travel concession. If these facilities are misused then the action is taken against the official under the Central Civil Service (conduct) Rules, 1964.In the same way, regarding the travelling allowance, to demand the higher class fare than the class in which he has actually travelled, to utilize government money for personal purposes, embezzlement, misbehavior, misconduct are also considered as indisciplinary behavior. In such conditions enquiry is made.
Considering the seriousness of the matter, if necessary the official can be suspended also. In some cases to conduct the bipartite enquiry of the situation or for departmental enquiry, enquiry committee is formed. The charge sheet is issued to the concerned official. To enquire into the charges the enquiry committee invites the accused or his representative for hearing.
This procedure is like that of the court of law. The enquiry committee examines the matter factually, considering the nature of the charge submits its enquiry report. And considering/in view of the charge suggests the type of penalty to be given. As per the rule 16 and rule 14 of the Central Civil Service (Classification, control and appeal) Rules 1965 two types of penalty - light penalty and severe penalty - are defined. Under the light penalty come censure, stopping (stoppage) the increment for some time, minimize the increment etc., and under the severe punishment come demotion, stopping the promotion, removal from service, dismissal (from service) etc. penalties.
The official has right to go to the central administrative tribunal or the high court against the action taken by the department. It is expected of the government servants that they should observe the time and discipline of the office. He should do his work with full integrity and honesty. He should not misuse the government facilities and resources.
He should behave decently with his colleagues and officers. He should comply with provision of Central Civil Service (conduct) Rules.
Ramkishor - Namaskar (Salutation) I am Ramkishor. I am appointed as Research Assistant in your office.
Office Superintendent - Namaskar. Please come, Have a seat. You are selected by the Union Public Service Commission.
Ramkishor - What am I to do to take the charge (of the post).Office Superintendent - To take the charge you give an application addressing to the (Head of the office) Officer in Charge.
Ramkishor - Please, here is my application. Now what should I do?
Office Superintendent - Now you have to fill up the Service Book. You will fill all the columns, which are concerning you. You have to attach your photograph in this (book). All the records regarding your service will be kept in this. You can see it every year. All the leaves except Casual Leave, Restricted Leave, and Compensatory leave are recorded in this.
Ramkishor - Besides this are there any other forms which are to be filled in?
Office Superintendent - Yes, along with this you have to fill in the nomination form of Provident Fund, and the nomination form of Central Government Employee Insurance Scheme, the details of your family, the form of declaration of the home-town. It is necessary to fill in these forms.
Ramkishor - Can this nomination be changed?
Office Superintendent - Yes, you can change all of these nominations but you can change your home town only once in entire service.
Ramkishor - Can I get the benefit of Pension after the retirement? Office Superintendent - New Pension Scheme has come in force since 1.1.2004. As per this scheme you will contribute 10% of your salary to Contributory Provident Fund. i.e. C.P.F. and Government will add same amount to it, on the basis of the sum-total of these two you will be given pension after retirement.
Ramkishor- Besides this, what other facilities I can get?
Office Superintendent -You can get All India Leave Travel Concession, which can be availed once in four years. And you can get home-town travel concession once in two years. If your family does not stay with you then you can avail home-town travel concession every year. If you are availing the Leave travel concession, which you get once in four years, you can take the encashment of 10 days earned leave but in entire service-period you can en-cash only 60 days earned leave.
Ramkishor - This is very useful.
Office Superintendent - Yes, Government gives medical facility also to its employees. For the employees who come under the Central Government Health Scheme, their entire dependent family (can avail the medical facility) is provided with the medical facility. Under the Central Government Health Scheme there are some private Hospitals on their panel. For the employees who get the treatment in these hospitals, the medical expenditure is reimbursed. The places which do not come in the jurisdiction of the C.G.H.S. (Central Govt. Health Scheme) they are given the facility of Approved Medical Practitioner/Attendant (A.M.A.).
Ramkishore - Whether some allowances are also given along with the pay.
Office Superintendent - Yes, Along with the basic pay dearness pay (if it is due) Dearness allowance, House rent allowance and Transport allowance are to be given. On the basis of your posting place and some other points some other allowances are also due.
Ramkishor - Are the facilities given for the education of the children?
Office Superintendent -Yes, the expenditure made for the education of the child after the completion of five years of his life, is reimbursed. This facility is given only for two children born after 1996 (A.D.). Ramkishor - Many Thanks, sir, now please show me my seat where I am to sit and do my work. Office Superintendent - Please come, I will introduce you to other colleagues/companions.
Bharat is a democratic country and for the success of the democracy the government work of a particular country should be done in the language of the people. In the large country like Bharat many languages and dialects are being spoken. Out of them 22 languages (The names of these languages are given at the end of the lesson) are mentioned in The Constitution. But to do the work of the govt. and to have liaison between the Centre and the states Hindi has been selected as the Official Language of the Union by The Constitution Committee on 14th September 1949, Because Hindi is not only being spoken and understood by majority of the people but it is the link to join the religion, cultural and political traditions of Bharat. Under the linguistic provision of the Constitution Article 120, 210 and343 to 351 are concerned with the provision of Official Language. As per the Article 343 (1) of the Constitution, the Official Language of the union will be Hindi in Devnagari script and the form of numerals to be used for the Official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
As per the Article 343 (2), for a period of 15 years from the commencement of the Constitution, i.e. 26th January 1965, the use of English Language will continue along with Hindi. As per the Article 343 (3), Parliament may extend this period further. To make Hindi a medium of expression of the composite culture, the Union has been entrusted vide Article 351 to develop to promote the spread to enrich it by accepting (assimilations) the words mainly/primarily from Sanskrit and Secondarily from other Indian languages. Hindi Teaching Scheme was working on voluntary basis, since 1952, under the then Education Ministry but since July 1955 it was transferred to the Ministry of Home Affairs.
In the same year under the section 344(1) the first Official Languages Commission was constituted under the chairmanship of Mr. B. G. Kher. As per the Section 344 (4), on the basis of the recommendations made by the Commission, The Parliamentary committee was formed under the Chairmanship of the then Home Minister Shri Govind Vallabh Pant. This committee is also known as Pant Committee. On the basis of the report submitted by the Parliamentary Committee the President issued the directives in 1960 regarding the preparation of the terminology, Hindi translation of the manuals and procedural literature, Hindi Training of the officials (employees), the Propagation and Spread of Hindi, the Bills, Special provision regarding the language to be used in the Supreme Courts and High Courts. In the consequence the commission for scientific and Technical Terminology was established. Hindi (Language), Hindi typing and Hindi Stenography was made compulsory for government employees/officials vide the orders issued by the President on 27th April 1960.
The compliance of the Article 343(3), The Official Language Act was passed in 1963.In accordance with the section 3(3) of this Act issuing of the 14 types of documents in Hindi and in English - in bilingual form was made compulsory. These documents are - Notifications, Resolutions, General orders, Rules, Administrative and other reports, Press Communiques, Contracts, Agreements, Licenses, Permits, Tender Notices, Tender Forms, Administrative or other reports laid before a House or Houses of the Parliament, other official papers laid before any House of the Parliament. Official Language Act 1963 was amended in 1967, and both the Houses of the Parliament passed a Resolution in 1967, which was published in the Gazette of India in 18 January 1968.It was named as Official Language Resolution 1968.
In this (Resolution) the directives have been given to the Govt. for the first time that an intensive and comprehensive programme for the development of Hindi should be prepared, should be implemented and an annual evaluation report of its progress should be prepared and submitted in the Parliament. In Compliance of this (Resolution) an Annual Programme is being prepared by the Department of Official Language, every year. Central Translation Bureau was established in 1971 to translate other Ministries/Departments, Administrative and Rule books etc.
Afterwards Central Translation Bureau were established in Mumbai, Bengaluru and Kolkata. Along with that law commission was established in New Delhi to translate legal works. To encourage the wide use of Hindi, Central Hindi Committee, Central Hindi Advisory Committee, Parliamentary Official Language Committee, Central Official Language Implementation Committee, Town Official Language Implementation Committee and Departmental Official Language Implementation Committee were established.
In 1974 except Class IV and work-charged employees Hindi (language), Hindi Typing and Hindi Stenography Training was made compulsory for the staff of Corporations, Undertakings, Banks which are owned or are controlled by the Central Govt. In 1983 a Technical Cell was established in the Department of Official Language to encourage Hindi through Mechanical and Electronic instruments propagate and spread of available bilingual instruments. In 1985 Kendriyal Hindi Prashikshan Sansthan (Central Hindi Training Institute)was established for the intensive training of Hindi Language, Hindi Typing and Hindi Stenography. There is progressive increase in wide propagation and spread of Official Language Hindi by arranging the intensive training of Hindi Language, Hindi Typing and Hindi Stenography and by introducing the correspondence courses and by organizing the workshops, and by introducing the incentive scheme to encourage and create good will (for the use of Hindi).